On March 21, the foreign Minister of Britain, Boris Johnson, speaking in Parliament, said that Vladimir Putin wants to use the world Cup 2018 to improve the image of Russia. Johnson compared the world Cup in Russia with the Olympic games in Berlin. What was the Berlin Olympics in fact, how were the cooking and who allowed Adolf Hitler to conduct the Games in Nazi Germany — in the material “Tape.ru”.
Berlin was supposed to host the Olympics in 1916, but the organization of the tournament prevented the outbreak of the First world war. After the end Germany did not count on the Game: the country lost the war, was under sanctions and paid millions in reparations. Being isolated, Germany was excluded from international events, including sports: country did not participate in the Olympic games 1920 and 1924.
However, the founder of the modern Olympic games, Baron Pierre de Coubertin since the first Olympics were played for the separation of sports from politics. Therefore, in 1931, instead of leaving Rome and Budapest, the international Olympic Committee (IOC) chose the venue of the Olympic games 1936 in Berlin. And Germany after long-term isolation has returned to the world sports elite.
Why do we Game?
In 1933 to power in Germany comes the national socialist party headed by Adolf Hitler. The new leader sees no point in holding the Games and calls the Olympics “an invention of Jews and Freemasons”. Hitler joins the National socialist students ‘ Union. According to them, Aryan athletes should not compete with the representatives of “inferior” peoples. Hitler thinks about abandoning Games and the postponement of the competition to another country.
However, the head of propaganda of the NSDAP, Joseph Goebbels strongly opposed. The Minister explains to Hitler that the Olympics can be a powerful companion to Nazi propaganda. Large-scale event will have an impact on the reputation of the country and show its greatness. According to Goebbels, the Olympic games will represent a new Germany: towards a world not torn apart by internal political conflicts, with a strong people and leader. A positive image for the country is the political isolation, the establishment of economic contacts and, as a consequence, the flow of capital, in which Germany so desperately needs. Hitler agrees and gives the nod to the preparations for the Games.
To make the Olympics the best in history, Hitler increases the budget up to 20 million Reichsmarks ($8 million). While it was originally planned to spend only three million. Subsequently, the Germans were able to recapture only six per cent of the cost of the Game. Instead of the reconstruction of the Poshtova stadium is planned the construction of a new sports facility. In Berlin in record time, three years (!), built a new sports complex: a stadium with 86 thousand places, outdoor arena, swimming pool, outdoor theatre, horseback riding, private ice hockey stadium and the Olympic village in Wustermark.
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The village is located 10 kilometers from Berlin. The work involved only the German builders of the Aryan origin: the Nazis followed this up more thoroughly than during construction. On the area of 540 thousand square meters was placed 150 buildings. On the territory of the village dug lake, set a Finnish sauna and terrace with a café. During the Second world war, the Olympic village will be used for the wounded of the Wehrmacht, and after the capture of Berlin for the conclusion of interrogations of prisoners of war and intelligence agents of SMERSH.
Specifically for the Games, created sketches of badges, medals, awards and Souvenirs with a swastika and German eagle. The eleventh symbol of the Olympic games becomes a four-meter bell, weighing 10 tons, on which the metal letters were carved: “I summon the youth of the world”. The budget allocated for the designs of Hitler is not enough: only the construction of the stadium costs Germany 77 million Reichsmarks. Hitler wants to make Berlin like Ancient Rome, so the stadium is constructed of natural stone, giving the structure an antique look. Training grounds doing the same sizes as competitive at the Olympic stadium. The main novelty of the sports complex is getting a pool with 25-meter lanes and Windows, the shutters of which were controlled by a remote control and electric drive.
The organization of the Games trust the writer and theorist of the sports movement Carl Dima. Supposedly not trustworthy because of the Jewish relatives of his wife, the Dim sum nevertheless becomes a key figure in the ideological component of the Olympics along with propaganda Minister Goebbels. According to their idea, it is necessary to develop the idea of the relationship between the Olympics in Ancient Greece and the Third Reich. The media cultivated the image of a perfect, including physically, Aryan. The benchmark selected antiquity, the sculptures of which emphasized the power. The Germans repeat: the Third Reich — the heir of the “Holy Roman Empire of the German nation”, and therefore its culture and power. Speaking on a radio address to the German people, Pierre de Coubertin says, the Olympic movement will become a new religion.
After the commencement of construction of a world star of the documentaries of Leni Riefenstahl begins preparations for the shooting of the film “Olympia”, the first ginosaji Olympic games, known in the history of documentary artist. The film reveals the interconnectedness of antiquity and the Third Reich. Goebbels wanted the viewer to see not just a chronicle of sports and propaganda of the greatness of Germany in the eyes of the world. And Director is included in the Nazi manipulation.
While Germany was preparing for the Games, the world community was silent. The opponents of the Nazi Games appears the idea to hold an alternative Olympic games in Barcelona. When the athletes have already started to arrive for the competition, they had to cancel Spain’s civil war began.
Calling to cancel the Game was made by Americans. They were joined by the delegations of France, great Britain, Czechoslovakia, Sweden and the Netherlands. They expressed their dissatisfaction with the superiority of the Aryan race and the expulsion of the Jews and Roma of German companies. From 1933, Jews everywhere say no: the German Boxing Association expelled champion Eric Siliga of Jewish origin, after it was terminated by agreement with the tennis player Daniel Prenom; the high jumper Gretel Bergmann and is asked from the Olympic team. The Jews were systematically stripped of their rights to participate in the life of the country, which could not cause discontent of the global community.
However, the President of the American Olympic Committee Avery Brandage opposed the boycott, arguing that politics had no place in the sport: “the very Foundation of the revived modern Olympic movement will be undermined, allowing individual countries to restrict the participation in the Games because of class, religion or race.” Branded declared that Jewish athletes are true, but Americans should not engage in “Jew-Nazi altercation.” In 1935, the debate about the Games reached a peak and Brander spoke about the existence of “Jewish-Communist conspiracy” that aims to ensure that States boycotted the Games.
Pendejo tried to argue, but these attempts were quickly suppressed. The IOC member Ernest Lee Jahnke was expelled from the Committee for speaking out against the Berlin Games. Yanque eventually became the only IOC member, who was expelled from the organization. The position of the IOC about the Olympic games-36 conditioned by the relation of Coubertin to Nazism.
In the 1920s he made the acquaintance with associate of Hitler, Hermann Esser. Gruppenfuhrer in the Nazi air corps repeatedly came to Lausanne, Switzerland where he lived the founder of the Games. In the letters of the Berlin colleagues Esser said the Baron, forgotten old friends and deceived by the ideas of the Nazis. Coubertin was invited to visit Germany, and he in his letter of thanks expressed to Hitler their loyalty. The Baron even pondered the idea of transferring the German government of his numerous works. Coubertin called Hitler “one of the best creative spirits of our age”, considered Nazi Germany as the spiritual guardian of the Olympic idea and wanted to make the country a permanent host of the Games.
At the hand of Nazi Germany played a private policy. Before the Olympics were suspended laws against representatives of nonconventional sexual orientation. The German government has reduced the anti-Semitic rhetoric. When IOC President Henri de baie-Latour arrived in Germany, he expressed his dissatisfaction with anti-Semitic slogans and posters. Hitler began to argue: “Mr. President, when you come to visit, you do not teach the owners how to look after the house, right?” Latour found that the answer is: “I apologize, Chancellor, but when the stadium appears flag with five rings — this is not Germany, this is Olympia, and masters in it — we”.
From the streets of Berlin removed the anti-Jewish ads and books. The German media was forbidden to release anti-Semitic materials. Residents of the capital encouraged to abandon critical remarks about Jews during the Olympics.
To create some semblance of liberalism, even the Nazis allowed a Jewish fencer Helene Mayer to represent Germany at the Olympic games. Subsequently, she won a silver medal and, like other German medallists, gave on the podium Nazi salute. After the Games Mayer the uncle die in a concentration camp, and the athlete herself emigrated to the United States.
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In addition to her the German government allowed the Game another nine Jewish athletes. Thanks to the lobbying of the IOC and the efforts of the Nazis the Amateur athletic Union of the United States in December 1935, voted to participate in the Games. The example of the Americans was followed by other countries. Games were given the green light.
The discovery of the Nazis
August 1, 1936, Hitler opened the XIth Olympiad. The city was shined up, the stadium “Sportpalast” was full of happy Germans and the arrival of Hitler was accompanied by the orchestra, conducted by composer Richard Strauss. Hitler’s speech was orchestrated by a team of Goebbels: Hitler, protected from the crowd of 40 thousands of stormtroopers, climbed the stairs, whose structure was inspired by the Roman Colosseum, released in the stadium 20 thousand pigeons while over the stadium circled the airship with a length of almost 304 meters with the Olympic flag, and made a fiery speech on the opening of the Games. Behind him stood the Bulgarian king, heirs to the thrones of Sweden, Greece, Italy and the sons of fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Everywhere were waving flags with swastikas. The audience stood up, raising his right hand. Over the arena echoed Nazi salute.
After the opening of the Olympic stadium marched the representatives of forty-nine teams — more than all previous Games. The standard-bearers, passing by Hitler, was to lay the flags in front of the Nazi leader. However, the American athlete has ignored the requirement, past Hitler. Team USA deliberately turned away from the führer.
Has not walked in the stadium and the USSR national team. Soviet athletes in the Games was not involved, because until 1951 the country was not the Olympic Committee, and relations with the Weimar Republic were in a frozen state. In protest came some Jewish athletes: cyclist Milton Greene of team USA, athletes from France, Austria and Canada. However, despite this, the number of participants for those years was overwhelming — a total of 4066 athletes (3738 men and 328 women).
The culmination of the opening ceremony was the arrival of the torchbearer, the relay brought fire from the Greek city of Olympia. Dim and Goebbels planned a relay race modeled on the one that was held in Athens in the year 80 BC and enter it into a tradition. Torchlight processions were of great importance to Nazi propaganda. Such parades had to give the Germans a sense of belonging to the government.
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The first route of the relay was carefully thought out, it ran from Olympia, via Athens, Delphi, Thessaloniki, next to Sofia, Belgrade, Budapest, Vienna, Prague, Dresden and finally Berlin. The fire made a path of length three thousand miles through seven States. Have participated in the relay 3075 athletes, each carried a torch exactly one kilometer. In Berlin torchbearer joined the rally of the Hitler youth: then the fire was lit at the Olympic stadium.
After the ceremony, the athletes went to the Olympic village. Athletes participating in the Games, has created favorable conditions. Several times a day, gave a concert of a military band. The Olympic village served around the clock. Fed athletes in the “Kitchen 38 Nations”, which carried out the individual needs of athletes. Due to the fact that in the diet of many of the teams consisted of eggs, consumption of this product for Berliners was temporarily cut to make guests ate without restrictions. In addition, residents were forbidden to hang Laundry on the balconies, so as not to spoil the view of the city.
Hitler’s helpers, one after another rolled receptions for foreign delegations: foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop in the Villa, guests were treated with champagne, Minister of aviation Hermann göring had a party with rides, and Goebbels took the foreigners on the island with twinkling trees and live music.
Another innovation of the Games were broadcast from the Olympic arena. Specially for the Games in Berlin was built 33 public theater, where it was shown 48 programs with the Olympic games. The public realized that television can be better to examine the details of the competition. So a ticket to the theater to buy was more difficult than the Games themselves.
Sports competitions started the next day after the opening ceremony. The first Olympic champion was the German Hans welke in the shot put. The podium was raging. Hitler invited the Olympian to the box and anticipating future victories of the Germans. The Fuhrer congratulated the three Finns, who won the 10-kilometer race, and the Germans, who took first and second places in the javelin.
However, the sweetness from the Games Hitler spoiled some athletes. The head of state was to welcome all the winners, regardless of skin color and nationality. Doing it selectively is not possible. Therefore, in the first day of the competition, the Nazi leader left the Olympic stadium after the Council entourage: either to congratulate all medalists or none. Hitler chose the second option.
Not those heroes
The main star of the Olympic games was black American Jesse Owens. The athlete was one of ten children in a poor family. In high school in Kaunsa drew the attention of the teacher and asked the boy to play sports professionally. The guy was difficult to compete: the rest of the team consisted of white athletes. However, he paid no attention to it and became a star of American sports. Having the background of the fighter against racial prejudice, Owens went to Nazi Berlin. With outstanding time results, the athlete became the champion on distances of 100 and 200 meters and helped team USA win the gold medal in the relay at the Olympics in Berlin.
Then the athlete won the competition in long jump, setting a record eight feet and six inches. This achievement lasted more than 20 years. African rival in the final was German Lutz long, and while the local press named the champion only as “the Negro Owens”, long congratulated the opponent and remained his friend until his death in 1943. Hitler chose an African-American not to meet. As with olimpioniki-Jews.
There were a lot of Hungarian wrestler Carol Karpati, his compatriot — jumper in the height of Ibolya Zack and fencer Ilona, Sacherer-Elec, Austrian weightlifter Robert Fain, French swimmer Alfred Nakache. For Jewish athletes, who failed to leave Germany and the occupied territories, the Olympic games in Berlin could be the last. Like other Jews, Olympians awaited death in concentration camps. However, the status of Champions has allowed some of them to appear in labor camps and survive.
One of them was a swimmer Nakache. Debut at the Olympics in Berlin, the athlete became the fourth and intended to serve for many years. However, in 1940 with his wife and two year old daughter he was in Auschwitz. The family of the athlete shot and Nakache were subjected to humiliation: he was forced to compete with the other prisoners: race the loser — shot. In the camp, the athlete has lost 40 pounds and almost stopped talking. However, he managed to survive. After the liberation Nakache has returned to training and has set a new world record in the relay. The swimmer spoke at the first post-war Games in London, then left the sport and went to a remote island in the Indian ocean. There are party Games in Berlin opened a school for navigation. In 1983 he was found dead in the pool.
Olympics lasted from 1 to 16 August 1936. All have been played 129 sets of medals in 19 sports. Germany won the team event, winning 89 medals, including 33 gold. Americans who became the second, won 24 gold medals. In third place is fascist Italy.
The fate of the heroes of the Olympic games of 1936 were different. The head of the Olympic village, Wolfgang Fürstner committed suicide three days after the Games. He was dismissed from military service for concealing Jewish origin. Polish swimmer Ilya shraibman and fencer Roman Kantor, who participated in the Olympic games until 1936, died in concentration camps.
The majority of German Olympians went to war and died on the battlefield: the champion equestrian Ludwig Stubbendorf killed on the Eastern front in 1941. Shot-putter Hans welke went to the policemen, was caught and killed by partisans in 1943 under the Khatyn.
The winner in the team competition in show jumping, Heinz Brandt, according to one version, and all saved Hitler’s life. Becoming a staff officer, he attended meetings of the Nazi party and accidentally touched the briefcase bomb left by the attempt on the Fuhrer, Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg. Olimpionico lost his leg, and the next day he died. Thanks to the actions of a subordinate, Hitler survived and gave Brandt the posthumous rank of major-General.
After the Olympics were still three years before the war. The Nazis were jubilant. The Berlin Olympics went according to plan. The international press acknowledged that Germany held the most successful Games in history. “New York times” said that the Olympics “returned to Germany in the fold of Nations” and “more humane”. Thousands of tourists come back from Germany with happy memories of the hospitality of the German people, amazed by the sports facilities and the level of organization of competitions. Hitler got what he wanted: the world saw the great Germany and admired her.
In 1946 the IOC officially admitted guilt for the actions in the early 30-ies. Pompous Nazi Games in Berlin went down in history as one of the main mistakes of the Olympic movement.
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